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Korea is located in the humid temperate climatic zone, affected by the influence of both continental and oceanic air masses. National average annual rainfall is about 1,300 mm, ranging from about 980 mm (Daegu-si) to about 1,440mm (Jejudo).

About 50 ~ 60 percent of annual rainfall occurs during the summer months; July to September, with occasional typhoons. During the summer, although the ambient temperature is high (mean temperature; 20 ~ 25 oC), and crop canopies are thick, the precipitation exceeds the potential evapotranspiration because of concentrated heavy rainfalls. As a result, the base saturation ratio is rather low in the majority of soils. With the exception of some soils developed from alkaline rocks containing large proportion of calcium and/or magnesium carbonates, it typically results in a low soil pH.

Temperatures in the spring and autumn are mild (mean temperatures of 10~15oC) and winter months are rather cold (monthlymean temperature of -5~2oC), particularly in the central and northern regions. During winter, spring and autumn, the rainfalls are much smaller than in the summer. Despite these seasonal differences, the amount of precipitation and the potential evapotranspiration, remain similar all throughout the year because of the lower ambient temperatures in the drier seasons.